During the 1990s over two dozen countries in Europe and Asia underwent a transition from centrally planned to more market-orientated economies. This text reviews their diverse experiences and assesses the outcome of transition in each case. It includes an extensive review of empirical evidence and aims to cover all the transition economies in a comparative fashion rather than focusing on any particular country. It discusses the evolving thinking surrounding transition as shaped by experiences, tracing out the shifting emphasis from macro to micro issues and increased concerns about governance and institutions. By placing each transition within its historical context and paying attention to variations across countries and over time, the book draws conclusions about the key elemens of a market economy and how they can be acheived. This book is intended for researchers and academics interested in transition studies literature and development studies.
As the modern business world becomes increasingly decentralized and globally focused, traditional interpretations and applications of trademark protection law are facing greater and greater challenges. This is particularly true regarding the principle of trademark territoriality, which holds that trademark rights are bound by the laws of individual nations. This timely volume offers expert analyses of the challenges facing crucial aspects of trademark law from some of the most prominent scholars in the field. The contributors explore how the rise of international trade and globalization has changed the way trademark law functions in a number of important areas, including protection of well-known marks, parallel imports, enforcement of trademark rights against counterfeiting, remedies, protection of certification marks, and domain names. A detailed discussion of the history of trademarks and territoriality along with a comprehensive breakdown of current issues make this a complete and well-rounded resource for the study of trademark law in a contemporary context. Students, professors and practitioners working in international law, trade law and intellectual property law will find this book to be a valuable resource.
The purpose of this study is to better understand the essential interdependencies between the world economy and the global ecosystem, including human populations. World production, product prices, wages, interest rates, exchange rates, employment, and spending are shown to be mutually determined over time with the growth rates of country-specific renewable resources, the generation of waste, human population growth, waste assimilation by the basic fungible resource, and the sanitation and other health and human services provided by the government sectors. Particular attention is paid to alternative central bank policies and their potential effects upon future mixes of resources in world production and upon the level and composition of that production. Materials balance holds with respect to all production and consumption. Cash flow constraints hold with respect to all economic transactions; in particular, the decisions to save and invest are directly linked to financial market decisions.
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